When deciding my research project, I had to begin the required literature reviews for writing my paper. This primarily involves creating an annotated bibliography which can store notes about each of my sources. Some of the sources provide general information about the state of UAS in remote sensing while others are much more focused on specific topics such as recreating 3D models from lidar measurements. End Note was used to create the bibliography and currently holds the annotations. APA 6th edition formatting was used because the Purdue Library standardized on it but this can be easily reformatted for other publications if necessary. The bibliography and my notes can be seen below.
af Wåhlberg, A. E. (2004). Characteristics of low speed accidents with buses in public transport: Part ii. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 36(1), 63-71.
This paper studies low speed accidents involving busses from 1986 to 2000. They did a great deal of analysis on how to statistically model the accident rates and showed the conditions involved. The paper shows that accidents are more likely to involve busses reversing or other cars reversing into busses than other conditions such as skidding or loss of control. The study also showed that busses are more likely to hit people than other objects.
Barazzetti, L., Fangi, G., Remondino, F., & Scaioni, M. (2010). Automation in multi-image spherical photogrammetry for 3d architectural reconstructions.
This document explains the technique for how multi image photogrammetry works using standard consumer grade cameras or DSLR cameras. The paper explains how tie points are generated and the images are stitched together in great detail. The paper however uses panoramic images which would be unlikely to be captured from a UAS. The paper is locked behind a paywall but can be accessed by searching for the title on Google Scholar.
Barazzetti, L., Sala, R., Scaioni, M., Cattaneo, C., Gibelli, D., Giussani, A., . . . Vandone, A. (2012). 3d scanning and imaging for quick documentation of crime and accident scenes.
This document discusses the use of lidar and photogrammetry in crime scene investigations. The document points out the limitations of long range radar typically used onboard UAS and suggests using short range radar for higher resolution data with resolutions up to 0.15mm. The paper also discusses how photogrammetry can be used to create a 3D representation of the environment in color but with slight inaccuracies in terms of measurement. Suggestions were made to use lidar sensing for distance based measurements and the 3D reconstruction for visualization of the scene as a whole. It also discusses how many countries still have not allowed the data gathered from the technologies to be used in a court case. The paper however does not mention anything specific to UAS and the experiments performed were all ground based.
Dalamagkidis, K., Valavanis, K. P., & Piegl, L. A. (2008). Evaluating the risk of unmanned aircraft ground impacts.
This paper discusses the safety aspect of UAS and what risks they pose to persons and property on the ground. The calculations are based on fatality rates per 10 million flight hours and are compared against manned aviation. It builds a model for estimating fatalities based on impacts alone. No attention was given to non-kinetic risks such as fire or chemical exposure as can be seen in pesticide application. It proposes different weight classes of UAVs when designing regulations.
Dechant, L. (2006). How a photogrammetry expert can help you win your case. Nev. Law., 14, 4.
This document was written by an individual who provides photogrammetry consulting services to attorneys for use in court, so much of the information may be skewed to encourage its ues. It appears to be written more as an advertisement for the consultant but still holds valid information about photogrammetry being used in a court case. It discusses how photogrammetry can be used in a court case and what needs to be done to use the images. The document focuses on photogrammetry of small objects from only one or two pictures, so application to UAS may not be as direct. The document is protected by a paywall but can be accessed through Google Scholar.
Doherty, P., & Rudol, P. (2007). A uav search and rescue scenario with human body detection and geolocalization.
This paper focuses on using UAS for search and rescue operations and sending supplies to the person needing aid. The project tests a method for geolocating the individual using a modified Yamaha RMAX helicopter. The project uses image classification to search for possible bodies on the ground using a modified Haar classifier. Tests were run to verify the functionality and it was able to correctly identify and locate all of the 11 bodies being used for testing. The classifier could be retrained to look for debris in a car accident if the need arose.
Eisenbeiss, H., & Sauerbier, M. (2011). Investigation of uav
systems and flight modes for photogrammetric applications. The Photogrammetric Record, 26(136), 400-421.
This paper focuses on mapping archaeological excavations using UAS where the ground can rapidly change during digs. The paper has some facts outdated thanks to new low cost UAS entering the market but most of the information is still correct. It focuses largely on the flight planning and operations of UAS missions and the results gained after creating a DSM from the data. It also details the reasons why manually flown missions are not as desireable as autonomous missions.
Manfreda, S., McCabe, M., Miller, P., Lucas, R., Pajuelo Madrigal, V., Mallinis, G., . . . Ciraolo, G. (2018). On the use of unmanned aerial systems for environmental monitoring. Remote sensing, 10(4), 641.
This paper aims to give an overview of the technologies currently used in remote sensing for nature and agriculture. It also analyzes areas where UAS can grow and improve. It discusses the benefits of UAS when compared against other technologies such as satellite imagery and the need for standardization on a method of data gathering. The paper is very well written with lots of information covering the technology in great detail.
Remondino, F., & El‐Hakim, S. (2006). Image-based 3d modelling: A review. The photogrammetric record, 21(115), 269-291.
This document goes into great depth on the various technologies being used for image based 3D modeling of objects and the ground. Some of the topics discussed include photogrammetry, lidar, light projection, and camera focus/defocus methods for range finding. The paper does not do any experiments, but instead is simply a reference of what is currently being developed. It also discusses combinations of multiple sensors such as lidar and color cameras for the creation of a colored 3D model.
Singh, K. K., & Frazier, A. E. (2018). A meta-analysis and review of unmanned aircraft system (uas) imagery for terrestrial applications. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 1-21.
This document is a study over the data collection and processing techniques of many other published UAS studies. It underlines the need for more consistent data collection practices such as overlap, resolution, and other parameters configured prior to flight. The study also shows that the most research is being done in the fields of agriculture, geomorphology, and forestry.
Moving forward from here, I have to plan out a timeline for the rest of the project. This will help me get to the end goal of publishing on time and allows me to plan for possible time consuming parts such as peer review. The times are intentionally vague because they should only serve as a guideline.
|Completion of data pipeline, sample RGB datasets gathered||Early December|
|Lidar system integrated and platform built||Mid January|
|All Data gathered||Late February|
|All data processed||Mid March|
|Paper submitted for peer review||Early April|
I plan for this timeline to give me a good start into this project. Some areas may need to be shifted around depending on weather or other conditions outside of my control, so flexibility is key. The literature review should also give me a good foundation to build my paper off of. This project should be well attainable within the time limits given.